In general, biophotonics is a field of biology studying optical processes both occur naturally and via bioengineering in biological systems such as cells or organs.
Raman and FTIR spectroscopy
Despite numerous differences between the two research methods their main work processes are very similar. Both of them detect spectral fingerprints of unknown substances and compare them with databases. Both spectroscopy methods measure the level of interaction of energy with molecular bonds, However, the methods are not completely the same. FTIR measures how much light energy remains from the source, while Raman measures scatted energy from the laser.
Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy
LIF works by studying the structure of molecules, detecting selective compounds, and visualizing biological and chemical structures. The main area of using LIF is to diagnose skin cancer by comparing spectrograms of patients with a database of malignant tissue. It is essential to highlight that it is only a non-invasive method of detection of skin cancers.
It is a method of combination of fluorescence microscopy and a femtosecond laser used to target cells in 3 dimensions. The primary aim of using this technology is the completion of precise surgical operations without damage ging healthy cells. The main field of use is ophthalmology and phoniatrics.
Biofluorescence is the absorption and reemission of light from living organisms (cells, bacteria). Biofluorescence has diverse research potential. For example, some fishes have bright green fluorescent protein research, which gives new information for studying a new method of detecting bilirubin in blood or urine. Another usage of fluorescence is the immobilization of fluorescent dyes on the surface of nanoparticles, making them easy to detect during treatment or research.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by living organisms. It occurs in organisms such as fish in the deep ocean, jellyfish in the shallows, and fungi and fireflies. They can produce light from the chemical reaction between enzymes luciferase and luciferin or by hosting light-emitting bacteria. The study of bioluminescence has research potential in immunology and neurodegenerative diseases by allowing them to interact. Moreover, using bioluminescence will enable us to research the living brain by separating signals from 2 different nerves based on coloring.
You can determine the similarity between fluorescence and bioluminescence since both refer to light. However, they have distinguishable significant features. Biofluorescence is not a chemical reaction; it uses an external light source via absorption and reemission of this light. Comparatively, bioluminescence is a chemical or biological reaction created within the living organism. That is why organisms with bioluminescence emit light, while biofluorescence reemit light.